“ADS The Doctors’ Choice Is America’s Choice”

Endnotes

1. See Crist P., W. E. Marple, S. J. Kaczynski, and T. L. Abrams, “re. Jones/Day Liability Summary (‘Corporate Activity Project’),” pp. 379–381, 1986, Bates No. 681879254/9715, 
available at tobaccodocuments.org/ness/37575.html (accessed November 12, 2005, as were all Internet citations); “[Memo to John W. Hill] Re. RJR Claim of Doctor’s Use of Camels,” J. J. D. to John W. Hill, December 14, 1953, Wisconsin Historical Society, John W. Hill Papers, Box 110, Folder 10.
2. Nelson D. E., G. A. Giovino, S. L. Emont, et al., “Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among US Physicians and Nurses,” Journal of the American Medical Association 271 (1994): 1273–1275. [PubMed]
3. Snegireff L. S. and O. M. Lombard, “Survey of Smoking Habits of Massachusetts Physicians,” New England Journal of Medicine 250 (24) (1954): 1042–1045; “The Physician and Tobacco,” Southwestern Medicine 36 (1955): 589–590. [PubMed]
4. Lombard H. L. and C. R. Doering, “Cancer Studies in Massachusetts, II: Habits, Characteristics and Environment of Individuals With and Without Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine 196 (10) (1928): 481–487; F. L. Hoffman, “Cancer and Smoking Habits,” Annals of Surgery 93 (1931): 50–67; A. Ochsner and M. DeBakey, “Symposium on Cancer: Primary Pulmonary Malignancy, Treatment by Total Pneumonectomy. Analysis of 79 Collected Cases and Presentation of 7 Personal Cases,” Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 68 (1939): 435–451.
5. Patterson J., The Dread Disease: Cancer and American Culture (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1987). See Ochsner and DeBakey, “Symposium on Cancer,” for a direct reference to “chronic irritation” and cancer (p. 446).
6. See “Good Taste in Advertising,” Fortune 1 (1930): 60–61, and “The American Tobacco Co.,” Fortune 14 (1936): 96–102, 154–160.
7. Marchand R., Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), 21–22; R. Sobel, They Satisfy: The Cigarette in American Life (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books; 1978), 101; G. H. Allen, “Albert Davis Lasker,” Advertising and Selling 19 (1932): 21–22, 36–37.
8. In a report to the Federal Trade Commission, American Tobacco Company detailed this survey. See American Tobacco Company, “United States of America, Federal Trade Commission: Memorandum Submitted by the American Tobacco Company,” pp. 18–22, 80–89, 1976, Bates No. 980306396/6603, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/rum85f00.
9. Lucky Strike advertisement, from Golden Book 12 (70) (1930), available at http://tobaccodocuments.org/pollay_ads/Luck11.07.html.
10. Morris Philip, “Report on the Findings of a Group of Doctors Call for Philip Morris,” October 16, 1937, Bates No. 2061014890, available at http://tobaccodocuments.org/ads_pm/2061014890.html.
11. Blum A., “When ‘More Doctors Smoked Camels’: Cigarette Advertising in the Journal,” New York State Journal of Medicine 83 (1983): 1347–1352. [PubMed]
12. Mulinos M. G. and R. L. Osborne, “Irritating Properties of Cigarette Smoke as Influenced by Hygroscopic Agents,” New York State Journal of Medicine 35 (1935): 1–3, and “Pharmacology of Inflammation, III: Influence of Hygroscopic Agents on Irritation From Cigarette Smoke,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 32 (1934): 241–245. For dispute on their findings, see internal memos from H.R. Hanmer, research director at American Tobacco, to C. F. Nailey (August 29, 1935, Bates No. 90516197711978, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/noj54f00) and to E. Bogen (December 27, 1935, Bates No. 950143321/3328, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/pko54f00). Howard C. Ballenger had findings that contradicted Mulinos in “Irritation of the Throat From Cigaret Smoke: A Study of Hygroscopic Agents,” Archives of Otolaryngology 29 (1939): 115–123.
13. “Philip Morris & Co.,” Fortune, March 1936, pp. 106–112, 114, 116, 119.
14. Morris Philip advertisement, from Saturday Evening Post, September 25, 1943, available at http://tobaccodocuments.org/pollay_ads/Phil03.04.html.
15. “Philip Morris & Co.,” 116.
16. Werner C. A., “The Triumph of the Cigarette,” American Mercury 6 (1925): 419–420; W. M. Johnson, “The Effects of Tobacco Smoking,” American Mercury 25 (1932): 451–454; A. G. Ingalls, “If You Smoke,” Scientific American 154 (1936): 310–313, 354–355.
17. Burnham J. C., “American Physicians and Tobacco Use: Two Surgeons General, 1929 and 1964,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 63 (Spring 1989): 1–31. [PubMed]
18. See Aronowitz R. A., Making Sense of Illness: Science, Society and Disease (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 111–144.
19. Wolinsky H. and T. Brune, The Serpent on the Staff: The Unhealthy Politics of the American Medical Association (New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1994), 145–147; “When ‘More Doctors Smoked Camels,’ ” 1347.
20. Morris Philip, “If You Advise Patients on Smoking,” August 1939, advertisement, Bates No. 2061011925, available at http://tobaccodocuments.org/ads_pm/2061011925.html.
21. Reynolds RJ, “The Medical Relations Division of Camel Cigarettes Believes That,” September 1942, advertisement, available at http://tobaccodocuments.org/pollay_ads/Came02.16.html.
22. Crist et al, “re. Jones/Day Liability Summary,” 379–381.
23. Reynolds RJ, “When You Record the Effectiveness of Nicotine Control-Less Nicotine in the Smoke. Camel—The Cigarette Of Costlier Tobaccos,” July 1942, advertisement, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sgt78d00.
24. Crampton C. W., “The Cigarette, the Soldier, and the Physician,” The Military Surgeon 89 (1941): 1–13.
25. DeVoto B., “Doctors Along the Boardwalk,” in Harper’s magazine (1947), reprinted in DeVoto, The Easy Chair (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1955), 91.
26. Morris Philip, “At the AMA. Convention,” June 6, 1942, Bates No. 1003071327, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/fvm02a00.
27. Reynolds RJ, “Camel Invites You to Enjoy the Interesting Features of the Camel Cigarette Exhibit at the AMA. Convention—June 8 to 12,” June 1942, Bates No. 502596871/6871, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/cst78d00.
28. Reynolds RJ, “Camels Costlier Tobaccos,” advertisement, available at http://tobaccodocuments.org/pollay_ads/Came14.17.html. This ad appeared in Saturday Evening Post, Life, and Colliers in May 1944, and similar ones appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine and the Journal of the American Medical Association.
29. Burnham J. C., “American Medicine’s Golden Age: What Happened to It?” Science 215 (1982): 1474–1479. [PubMed]
30. Reynolds RJ, “Every Doctor in Private Practice Was Asked. According to a Recent Nationwide Survey: More Doctors Smoke Camels Than Any Other Cigarette!” March 1946, available at http://www.trinketsandtrash.org/results.asp. The Trinkets and Trash Web site notes that the ad appeared in the March 1946. Ladies Home Journal.
31. See letters from Tiemann Helen, secretary to William Esty, to the RJR Advertising Department dated January 9, 1946. (Bates No. 502597537, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ijs78d00) and December 26, 1945 (Bates No. 502597519, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/qis78d00).
32. Letter from Smither W. T., RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company, to Dr Howard T. Behrman, February 22, 1946, Bates No. 2022238658/8660, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/rtx74e00.
33. Reynolds RJ, “Every Doctor in Private Practice Was Asked.”
34. Smither W. T., “Memorandum of Visit to William Esty,” June 10, 1946, Bates No. 501889543, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/guv29d00.
35. See also Welch James T. to A. G. Clarke, February 4, 1952, Bates No. 502400834, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/blc19d00.
36. Reynolds RJ, “More Doctors Smoke Camels,” advertisement, available at http://tobaccodocuments.org/pollay_ads/Came18.17.html. Internal RJ Reynolds records note that this advertisement appeared in Life, Look, Ladies’ Home Journal, Colliers, and Country Gentleman under the heading “I’ll Be Right Over!” RJ Reynolds, “According to a Recent Nationwide Survey: More Doctors Smoke Camels Than Any Other Cigarette!” May and June 1946, advertisement, Bates No. 502470699, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/jvj88d00.
37. Reynolds RJ, “The Doctor Makes His Rounds: According to a Recent Nationwide Survey: More Doctors Smoke Camels Than Any Other Cigarette!” August and September 1946, Bates No. 502470743, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bxj88d00.
38. Compulsory Health Insurance: The Continuing American Debate, ed. R. L. Numbers (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1982).
39. Reynolds RJ internal document, Bates No. 502470717, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bwj88d00.
40. See De Kruif P., Microbe Hunters (New York: Blue Ribbon Books, 1926), and B. Sokoloff, The Miracle Drugs (Chicago: Ziff-Davis Pub Co, 1949).
41. Reynolds RJ, “Experience Is the Best Teacher. Sir Charles Bell,” March 1947, Bates No. 502470841, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/moj88d00, and RJ Reynolds, “Experience Is the Best Teacher. Mildred O’Donnell,” May and June 1947, Bates No. 502470864, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/jpj88d00.
42. Reynolds RJ, “How Mild Can a Cigarette Be?” July 1949, Bates No. 502471375, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/nfj88d00; RJ Reynolds, “How Mild Can a Cigarette Be?” July 1949, Bates No. 502598073, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ztr78d00. RJ Reynolds had also had a related long-term campaign in their ads, asking consumers to take a “30-day test” of their “T-Zone” so that they could decide for themselves about the effect of Camels on their throat.
43. Reynolds RJ, “Not One Single Case of Throat Irritation Because of Smoking Camels! Noted Throat Specialists Report on 30-Day Test of Camel Smokers,” January 1949, Bates No. 502598158, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/flr78d00.
44. Reynolds RJ, “30-Day Smoking Test Proves Camels Mildness!” November 20, December 4, 6, 7, 1948, January 1949, Bates No. 502597957, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/obs78d00.
45. Display ad, New York Times, August 25, 1952, p. 6.
46. Display ad, New York Times, June 16, 1952, p. 10.
47. Wynder E. L. and E. A. Graham, “Tobacco Smoking as a Possible Etiologic Factor in Bronchiogenic Carcinoma: A Study of 684 Proved Cases,” Journal of the American Medical Association 143 (1950): 320–336; R. Doll and A. B. Hill, “Smoking and Carcinoma of the Lung: Preliminary Report,” British Medical Journal 2 (1950): 739–748. For a discussion of the significance of these articles, see Ernst L. Wynder, “Tobacco as a Cause of Lung Cancer: Some Reflections,” American Journal of Epidemiology 146 (9) (1997): 687–694, and Allan M. Brandt, “The Cigarette, Risk, and American Culture,” Daedalus 119 (4) (1990): 155–176.
48. For examples of coverage in the popular press, see R. Norr, “Cancer by the Carton,” Reader’s Digest, December 1952, pp. 7–8; “Smoking & Cancer,” Time, July 5, 1952, p. 34; “Beyond Any Doubt,” Time, November 30, 1953, pp. 60–61; L. M. Miller and J. Monahan, “The Facts Behind the Cigarette Controversy,” Reader’s Digest, July 1954, pp. 1–6; “Smoke Gets in the News,” Life, December 21, 1953, pp. 20–21. See also Hans H. Toch, Terrence M. Allen, and William Lazer, “Effects of the Cancer Scares: The Residue of News Impact,” Journalism Quarterly 33 (1961): 25–34.
49. Wynder Ernst L., Evarts A. Graham, and Adele B. Croninger, “Experimental Production of Carcinoma With Cigarette Tar,” Cancer Research 13 (1953): 855–864. [PubMed]
50. Edwin Dakin and Hill & Knowlton, “Forwarding Memorandum: To Members of the Planning Committee,” December 15, 1953, Trial Exhibit 8,904, available at http://tobaccodocuments.org/ness/3793.html; also available at Wisconsin Historical Society, John W. Hill Papers, Box 110, Folder 2, pp. 8–9.
51. See Cummings K. M., C. P. Morley, and A. Hyland, “Failed Promises of the Cigarette Industry and Its Effect on Consumer Misperceptions About the Health Risks of Smoking,” Tobacco Control 11 (Suppl 1) (2002): I110–I117, and R. W. Pollay, “Propaganda, Puffing and the Public Interest: Cigarette Publicity Tactics, Strategies and Effects,” Public Relations Review 16 (1990): 27–42. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
52. Liggett and Myers, “Fredric March Says—This Is It: ‘L&M Filters Are Just What the Doctor Ordered,’ ” February 22, 1954, Bates No. 2021368933, available at http://tobaccodocuments.org/pm/2021368933.html.
53. See Pollay R. W., “The Dark Side of Marketing Seemingly ‘Light’ Cigarettes: Successful Images and Failed Fact,” Tobacco Control 11 (Suppl 1) (2002): I18–I30. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
54. Lorillard, “Have You Heard the Story of New Kent Cigarettes, Doctor?” 1953, Bates No. 92373155, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/eej54a00; Lorillard, “Why Is It, Doctor, That One Filter Gives So Much More Protection Than Any Other? Kent. The Only Cigarette With the Micronite Filter for the Greatest Protection in Cigarette History,” 1953, Bates No. 92373147, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/mej54a00; Lorillard, “Have You Tried This Experiment, Doctor?” 1953, Bates No. 92373153, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/gej54a00; Lorillard, “Some Questions About Filter Cigarettes That May Have Occurred to You, Doctor and Their Answers by the Makers of Kent,” August 22, 1953, Bates No. 89749655, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dnm13c00.
55. “Cigarette Hucksterism and the AMA,” Journal of the American Medical Association, April 3, 1954, p. 1180. [PubMed]
56. Serpent on the Staff, 152–154.
57. “ ‘AMA Journal’ Stops Taking Cigaret Ads,” Advertising Age 1 (1953): 93.
58. Snegireff L. S. and O. M. Lombard, “Smoking Habits of Massachusetts Physicians: Five-Year Follow-Up Study (1954–1959),” New England Journal of Medicine 261 (1959): 603–604. [PubMed]
59. For a discussion of a newsletter distributed across the country in doctors’ and dentists’ offices, see Hill & Knowlton, “I. Tobacco and Health—1962,” (November 15, 1961, Bates No. 966046705/6719, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/zgo21a00.
60. Serpent on the Staff, 155.

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